The Python Infrastructure uses PostgreSQL databases to services hosted in the DigitalOcean datacenter.

  • Currently running hosted PostgreSQL 11 provided by DigitalOcean databases.

  • App nodes have pgbouncer running on it pooling connections.

    • The actual database user and password is only known to pgbouncer, each node will get a unique randomly generated password for the app to connect to pgbouncer.

Local Tooling

For roles which require postgresql, the postgresql-primary vagrant machine can be booted to provide similar infrastructure to the DigitalOcean hosted Postgres.

Creating a New Database

  1. Edit pillar/postgresql/server.sls and edit the databases dictionary to include a new entry where the left side is the name of the database you wish to create, and the right hand side is the name of the user to create.

  2. Edit pillar/secrets/postgresql-users/all.sls to add a new entry for the username with a randomly generated password.

Giving Applications Access

  1. Create a sls under pillar/{dev,prod}/secrets/postgresl-users for the role for the application and add it to pillar/{dev,prod}/top.sls.

  2. Add the postgresql.client state to the role for the application or to the states for the application.

  3. Setup the application to the connect the server(s), there is one primary read/write server and zero or more (currently one) read only slaves. The addresses for this can be discovered using the service discovery mechanisms detailed here.

      {{with service "primary.postgresql@aid1"}}
      primary: {{ "{{(index . 0).Address}}" }}:{{ "{{(index . 0).Port}}" }}
        {{range service "replica.postgresql@aid1"}}
        - {{.Address}}:{{.Port}}{{end}}

    Clients should also be configured with sslmode = verify-full, sslrootcert = /etc/ssl/certs/PSF_CA.pem, and host = The ip addresses from above should be configured as hostaddr instead of host. This will ensure that the client will connect via TLS, verify the certificate is valid and from our internal CA, and will verify that it is for the postgresql server. An example of this in Django is:

        "default": {
            "ENGINE": "django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2",
            "HOST": "",
            "NAME": "dbname",
            "USER": "dbname",
            "PASSWORD": "the password",
            "OPTIONS": {
                "hostaddr": "",
                "sslmode": "verify-full",
                "sslrootcert": "/etc/ssl/certs/PSF_CA.pem",